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Brand new islands

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Underwater volcanoes push up rock, wet ash and magma which build new islands. Surtsey island emerged in 1963, about 30 kilometers from the coast of Iceland. The time it would take for a volcano island to become habitable is the time it would take for the rock to weather and form soil and for plants and animals to colonize the island.

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Novarupta, meaning “newly erupted” in Latin, is a volcano located on the Alaska Peninsula, about 470 km southwest of Anchorage. It was the most powerful volcanic eruption of the 20th century, yet very few people knew about it.

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Mt. Baekdu, (Mount Paektu), 2,744 meter high and located on the border between North Korea and China erupted more than 1,000 years ago. It was one of the most violent and powerful in recorded history and is classified as a VEI-7 event.

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IN 1815, the Indonesian volcano Tambora eruption, measured 7 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI). It emitted ash and volcanic gases into the atmosphere more than any other eruption in history (about 10 times bigger than the Mt. Pinatubo eruption) and impacted climate worldwide throughout 1816. The year 1816 was known as “the year without summer.” The northeasterly region of the US and Europe were particularly hard hit, with snowfalls as late as August and massive crop failures.

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From SIRI to self-driving cars, artificial intelligence (AI) has been progressing rapidly. AI has been used in a wide range of fields including medical diagnoses, stock trading, robot control, law, remote sensing, scientific discovery and toys. Many people are worried their jobs might be taken over by the robots once artificial intelligence is fully developed.

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The Greenland Ice sheet is currently a record-breaking melting rate due to high temperature observed. This past May just broke a record for sea ice loss in Arctic. The role of red pigmented snow algae in melting Arctic glaciers has been strongly underestimated, suggests this study.

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