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Penicillin was discovered in 1928 by Scottish scientist Alexander Fleming. People began using it to treat infections in 1942. Penicillin antibiotics were among the first medications to be effective against many bacterial infections caused by staphylococci and streptococci. Penicillin is still widely used today, though many types of bacteria have developed resistance following extensive use.

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The oldest elephant in Japan, Hanako, dubbed the world’s “loneliest elephant” by animal welfare activists suddenly came to international attention.

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Besides the walking speed, people with MCI (mild cognitive impairment) may have problems with short term memory, keeping track of a purse or wallet, paying bills, planning and preparing meals, remembering appointments or traveling out of the neighborhood. For a person with MCI, these changes may cause them to experience minor problems or need a little help with more demanding daily tasks. However, MCI does not cause major problems with everyday living. If there is a significant impact on everyday activities, this may suggest dementia.

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There is an estimated 46.8 million people worldwide living with dementia in 2015. This number will almost double every 20 years, reaching 74.7 million in 2030.

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An ultrafine bubble (also called nano bubbles) is the size of less than 1 micrometer. They are invisible to the naked eye. They are visible with the aid of laser light scattering. If you line up 10,000 nano bubbles, it will still be short of one millimeter. Nano is equal to the fraction 1/1 billion. Nano bubbles have many potential applications in many different fields. This technology can put oxygen or ozone gas into water as tiny nano sized bubbles. And the study in each area is being done.

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Bubbles, they come in all shapes and sizes; bubbles contained in a liquid are visible to the eyes when the bubble sizes are large enough, as we can see bubbles in carbonated drinks. Bubbles with the size of a few millimeters in diameter show visible surfacing action in a liquid, and the presence of fine bubbles of dozens of microns in diameter can be confirmed with white turbidity in a liquid, because these bubbles are scattering substances.

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